The Violations Analysis Inventory (VAI) is a brief, easily administered and automated (computer scored) test specifically designed for use with defendants convicted of moving violations. The Violation Analysis Inventory (VAI) consists of 105 items and can be completed in 15 to 20 minutes. The VAI has five (5) scales (measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Driver Risk Scale, 3. Self-Esteem Scale, 4. Attitude Scale, and 5. Stress Coping Abilities Scale.

Five Violations Analysis Inventory Scales

1. Truthfulness Scale: The Truthfulness Scale measures how truthful the client was while completing the test. This scale identifies self-protective, guarded and defensive people who minimize or even conceal information. The VAI identifies faking.

2. Driver Risk Scale: Measures the defendants driver risk independent of substance abuse. Some people are simply irresponsible or aggressive drivers. This scale identifies driver risk.

3. Self-Esteem Scale: This scale reflects a person's explicit valuing and appraisal of self. It incorporates an attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval. The Self-Esteem Scale reflects how a person perceives themselves.

4. Attitude Scale: Identifies negative outlooks characterized by resistance, entitlement, oppositional disposition and un-cooperativeness. Positive attitude change is a prerequisite to behavior change. This scale identifies positive or negative features of one's attitude.

5. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: This scale measures how well the applicant copes with stress, tension and job pressure. Stress exacerbates defendant problems and contributes to mental health and adjustment problems.

Risk Level Classification

Each Assessment-Test scale score is classified in terms of the risk it represents. These risk level classifications are individually calculated for each of the nine empirically based scales each time an Assessment-Test is scored.

Risk Category

Risk Range Percentile

Low Risk

0 - 39%

Medium Risk

40 - 69%

Problem Risk

70 - 89%

Severe Problem

90 - 100%

A problem is not identified until a scale score (percentile) is at (or above) the 70th percentile. Percentile scores are obtained from a database of victim score distributions. Scores in the 70 to 90th percentile range represent problems for which specific intervention and/or treatment recommendations (or referrals) are made. Severe problems are identified with scale scores in the 91 to 100th percentile range. Recommendations are intensified for severe problem scale scores.

Alcohol, Drug and Stress Coping Scale scores in the 91 to 100th percentile range (severe problem) are frequently accompanied with a recommendation for a comprehensive psychological (or psychiatric) evaluation. Such a recommendation results in a licensed or certified health care provider conducting an evaluation and including a DSM-IV diagnoses, treatment plan and prognosis in their reports. With elevated scores (at or above the 91st percentile) it is very likely that formal DSM-IV diagnoses will apply to the victims being evaluated.

The Violations Analysis Inventory Training Manual provides an in-depth discussion of the Violation Analysis Inventory and how it works. To review the VAI Training Manual click on this VAI Training Manual link.

The VAI is a proprietary self-report assessment instrument that is completed by the defendant individually or in group testing settings. There are no forms or questionnaires to be completed by the staff. The VAI is scored and interpreted by the computer, which generates VAI reports on-site.

To Review a Violation Analysis Inventory example report click on this Example Report VAI Report link.